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This disposition andtilt Cuvier, taking as a thesis about the adaptability of organsand the thesis of their vzaimozavisimost, -- it prints the functionfar beyond the body and subdues the location of the bodythe dominance of function. Cuvier denies the authority if not the identity,at least independence, considering the erroneous belief that"in important on everything is important"; it attracts attention "ratherby functions, rather than to the authorities"2<$F2 G. Cuvier. Leconsd anatomie comparee, t. I, p. 63-64.>: before determiningthe organs through their own variables, he relates them tothe features that they provide. A number of these featuresrelatively small: breathing, digestion, circulation,the movement... While the visible diversity of structures detectednot on the basis of the variable table, but on the basis of majorfunctional unities that are able to be and to fulfill histhe appointment in various ways: "General features of the bodies of eachkind of all of the animals are reduced to a very small number of signsand sometimes appear only in the effect they produce. Especiallyamazing breathing: in different classes of animals itis bodies, are so different that the structure is nothave between them almost nothing in common"1<$F1 G. Cuvier.Lecons d anatomie comparee, t. I, p. 34-35.>. Consideringthe ratio of on to functions, you can see "similarities"appear where absolutely no "identical"elements; the similarity stated in the transition from the body to the invisiblethe evidence function. In the end, no matter whether the gills andlight any common characteristics -- shape, size, number; theyto be similar, since both arevarieties of a nonexistent, abstract,unrealistic, unattainable body that is not in anyavailable description animals, but the presence in the Kingdomanimals, taken as a whole -- the body that is breathingat all.
Thus, in the analysis of a living body resumesthe analogy of the Aristotelian type: gills are used for breathing in water,as the lungs -- breathing in the air. Such ratios wereof course, familiar and classic century, but they servedthere is just to define functions and were not used forof the established order of things in space and nature. SinceCuvier-defined function not available for external perceptionthe form of the action that it should pursue, he begins to servepermanent medium term, allowing us to relate to each otherset of elements, devoid of any resemblance.That classic was just pure perceptiondifferences, as contrasted with the identities starts nowbe ordered and viewed also on an underlying basis of homogeneityfunctions. Natural history was possible becauseIdentical and non-identical fit in the samespace, and such a thing as Biology becomessince the unity of this plan is destroyed, and the differencesbegin to act on the basis of other identities, deeper and moreimportant.
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