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The question is formulated in such a way that clearly dictates the answer. Starting with the statement that it is impossible to imagine political activities, the more active (categorical expression), without any basic political knowledge, without full awareness (again, categorical), the author asks the question about how did these political developments the Respondent. The fact remains nothing how to answer positively. Negative response, on the merits, withdrawn by the sociologist.Here is an example of the apparent influence of the question form on the Respondent. "What do you think should be done or to take to rumors, like a distorted reflection of the life of the city, there would be less or would be absent at all?" (Please write down your opinion).If the program of this research included the formulation of the question in this form, there is an obvious clear focus of the issue, i.e. the negative attitude of the researcher to the social phenomenon as a rumor. Thus programmed, the negative attitude of the respondents to the rumors.As can be seen from the above examples, the sociologist often induces the respondents to certain answers, i.e., the questionnaire has an impact on the result.In principle, it is impossible to build a completely neutral form, which would be completely excluded the influence of the researcher. It is always to a greater or lesser extent, will be present. The main thing to avoid biased, often unconscious desire to use the method of constructing questionnaires in such a way as to confirm their assumptions and hypotheses. It is a dangerous pursuit. Questions, beginning with, "did You Know...", "are You Satisfied with...", "do You Like...", etc., in fact, direct the Respondent towards a positive response. Easier to say Yes than to admit that You do not know, do not like etc. the Respondent most inclined to respond positively than negatively.There are several ways to reduce the impact of the researcher on the Respondent:-- to formulate neutral questions, regardless of the particular position, whether the position of the sociologist or conventional, or formal evaluation of the event. "Tell me, please, how do You feel about the TV show "animal world"?" The question carries a clear influence of the sociologist, the wording is neutral to the possible response options;-- to put the question in an alternative form. "Some people think that the fridge. "" very good, others say that he's not the most good, is better. What do You think?" The researcher offers the Respondent the different points of view, thus showing that there is no single generally accepted opinion, as the opinions of the sociologist. It asks the Respondent to Express their point of view;-- not to build the issue in a positive or negative form. In a pilot study respondents were asked the same question, but in three different formulations: positive, negative and neutral. The survey gave the following distribution of answers.
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