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Calluses and blisters can be a very appropriate illustrationhow known external actions give rise to surfacethe tissue is very remarkable phenomena, which, however, do neitherthe needs of the body, nor to its normal structure. This is the essence of suchchanges that do not lead to adaptation, either to improvethe type. Noting them, we can move on to related, but moreinstructive changes. Continuous pressure on any partsurface causes atrophy, while intermittent pressure causesgrowth: one delays the circulation and transfer blood from the capillaries into tissue, andother contributes to both. There are further encounteredby mechanical effects. We have some evidence that the nature of thecalloused skin on the bottom of the legs and on the inner side of armscaused by friction and alternating pressure: first, the mostsubjected to rough impact, be the most hardened;second, the inner surface of the arms exposed to very often rudedrink, as sailors, absolutely become verycorny on the surface, and, third, hands that are very smallused in the work, usually hardened part becomes quitesoft. Anyway, like it or fully Express the idea of these differentproof, I only prepare the way for a much more convincing.
"In many cases, there is reason to think that reduced use ofdifferent bodies have influenced the relevant parts of the body of the offspring.But there is no good evidence that this ever occurred during theone generation... Our domestic chickens, geese and ducks almost completelylost not only of individuals but of the entire breed the ability to fly;and because we never happen to see a scared chicken tryingwould fly off as does a young pheasant... Have a pigeon chest lengthbones, the height of its crest, the length of the blade and darling, the length of the wings measuredbetween the ends of the radial bone, all become smaller compared torelevant parts of the wild pigeon". After a similar and detailedconsideration of reducing the size of chickens and ducks, Darwin adds:"The reduced weight and size of bones in the previous cases, in all probability,is an indirect result of the reaction of the weakened muscles on the bones...Patasius showed that reduced pig breeds in the shortness of the legs and the snoutform articular processes of the head and the position of the upper jaws with fangsoutstanding very the wrong way forward from the lower canines can beattributed to the fact that these units were not sufficient exercise... Sothe changes in the structure, the well-inherited, characterisesome superior breed because they could not occur from anyhome or a wild race. Relative to cattle, Professor Tannernoticed that lungs and liver in the improved breeds are muchless in volume compared to the same parts in animals usingsovershennoe freedom... the Reason for the decrease lungs vysokoorganizovannymspecies of animals who make little movement, is obvious of itself". (Onthe following pages Darwin also cites facts that illustrate the consequencesthe use or disuse in the change of the ears, the length of the intestinalchannel and nature of the instincts animals.) However, the assumption, or rather assertion of Darwin, that the transmissionthe inheritance of functional changes occurred is a factor in organicevolution becomes especially apparent not one of those passages thatcited by us above. Much better it turns out it is from one place tothe Preface to the second edition of his "descent of man". He's thereprotests against the widespread distortions of its views thatthe above mentioned factor is not manifested in nature.
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