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In psychological tests, no one not puzzling questions like "do You like red?", "if we walk in the rain?", job set point, to draw a nonexistent animal. The desire to fix anything in the psychological test or Supplement it occurs rarely. Apparently realized that the test questions or judgment is just a form of expression research program, and the key to it is in the pocket of the researcher.
In sociological research this is not yet used as in the form of sociological issues are the substantive, which reflects the content of the study. It seems that the issue can immediately determine that it wants to know the sociologist.
In fact, if in the questionnaire there is a question why the employee wants to resign from the company, then, naturally, there is an assumption that the sociologist wants to use this question to find out the reasons or motives for the dismissal. In fact this can be a quite different, of a sociologist may be interested in some values of professional orientation of certain groups of employees and the question of motives of dismissal can only be one measure of the degree of orientation in the professional activity.
So when we ask a Respondent whether he has relatives or a beloved friend in a different city, how much to spend time on the road from home to work or as often sick in the last year, it causes confusion and the accusation of irrationality. "We pay You money not to learn if he had relatives in another city or if he wants to marry. We want to know why he wants to quit the factory!" - exclaims in this place the angry customer.
Appeal to sociologists to psychological methods of studying personality characteristics was not accidental. Although the object of sociological study are the most common (different levels of generality) the laws of the social functioning of the group, however, many empirical data can be obtained only through the individual, analyzing and evaluating his actions, opinions, traits, values. "Unlike psychology, sociology is interested in the mass and, moreover, impersonal processes, - wrote V. A. Poisons. And yet the sociologist cannot ignore the heart of public life - actors. A sociological study on the subject can only be a social group, some social community, not the individual. But very often information about social community is necessary to obtain by analyzing data on individuals comprising it. Aggregate information about individuals - their social orientation, opinions, stereotypes of thinking - be a good characterization of the social whole. Apparently, for all these reasons, sociologists are quite actively resorted to purely psychological procedures associated with measurement of personal or group characteristics".
Sociologists have adopted the use of psychological tests. However, as already mentioned, not so much the psychological tests as their elements, and this greatly impoverishes the depth and credibility of psychological information. If psychological tests are constructed as a series of questions (judgments) to identify, as a rule, a single property of the person, the intensity of his manifestation, then in the sociological questionnaires are often limited to two or three questions. But sociologists have won in another: they raised a layer of socio-psychological relations, which largely influence the formation and functioning of the common social laws of a specific community of people. Although, in the apt words of V. A. Yadov, the use of psychological tests in sociology "illegally" as they do not give information on the social behavior of the individual, and describe only some psychologically stable characteristics, but the social features of human behavior is impossible to know without studying his personal psychological characteristics. Therefore, the use of psychological tests or test items in sociology can be justified, if a sociologist wants to find out the mechanism of the interaction of psychological characteristics of the person and some General features of social behavior in their interdependence and mutual influence.
Psychological research allow us to understand why a man would do so, and not otherwise, why it acts differently, not as he is required by law of social behavior, specifically how psychological attributes influence social behavior and how social behavior leads to his specific individual qualities, psychological characteristics. The interaction is very complicated and certainly not straightforward, but understanding it is possible in some cases only in the simultaneous study of social and psychological behavior of the individual and large groups of people.
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